Will this society, so persecuted by the caste system, allow a Brahmin to become a revolutionary? Where a caste community is immune to all questions and where all the questions from another caste community are annihilated? This custom was previously only prevalent in the societies of the Khas, Newār, Madhesi. Caste system in Nepal Ethnic Groups The loss or debasement of caste is the greatest insult or humiliation within the Hindu society. Joshi MR. The Axis of Caste: Unmoved by Revolutions. However, Nepal being a Hindu nation, it was decided that brahmins and cows were unassailable, therefore Tanka Prasad Acharya was elected the president after a lot of discussion.’. His body had been hidden under a scattering of soil and stone, no more than a bit of mulch and few broken branches of. Many of such family are involved in politics and hold important public offices. Even though my father was a Dhakal, because my mother was a Mijar we are untouchables.’. In the Indian Subcontinent there were people of the Austro-Dravidian origin with black, red and yellow skins. This event illustrates how the Hindu state punishes with caste debasement anybody who dared to question or think. His head was shaved and he was declared an ‘untouchable’. Which means that they will not refrain from any form of discrimination, humiliation or violence if it returns to them the dignity of their caste. There is a danger of writers and intellectuals in such a society falling into the easy act of ideas without contemplation. Joshi is also sometimes spelled as Jyoshi. Georgia and 1 other state had the highest population of Joshi families in 1920. Joshi (Devanagari: जोशी) is a surname used by the Brahmins (caste) in India and Nepal. And perhaps it will also expose their slogans of democracy and socialism to new questions and scrutiny? And, the politics of myths has become the axis around which the notion that the Brahmin born from the head (of Brahma) is capable of thought and deliberation, is above the rest, is pure and has the ability to adjudicate according to scriptural laws while the dalit born from the soles of the feet of Brahma is incapable of thought and deliberation, is condemned to forever remain in the lowest stratum of society, and is impure and criminal in nature. Political dynasties hold hereditary powers that are carried out through family groups. For Hindu Newars, Brahmans had formal precedence with Kshatriyas, which included the royal family and the vari… The case of Newār is exceptional. See here the total Nepali Thar haru. In 1920 there were 2 Joshi families living in Georgia. Gotra means subdivisions of the castes represent more close relations of family. Born and raised in a Dalit family in Basamadi village of Makwanapur district, Sarita is intimately aware of the challenges of being a Dalit woman in Nepali society. For the common Nepali the caste system is something instituted by the gods, and defiance of this tradition bars their passage into the heavens in the afterlife. Joshi caste name could indicate the type of work people belonging to the Joshi caste do or did in earlier times. It is easy to see that there is a long sociological history behind the negligible representation of Dalits in the judicial system. Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 29:01 — 26.7MB), https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/podcast-the-record/id1414856063?mt=2 Android | Email, Podcast – The Record – The Record – Nepal, ‘When the peasant takes a gun in his hands, the old myths grow dim and the prohibitions are one by one forgotten. But, what is the reason behind such dismal representation of Brahmin and Kshatriya women? The chief royal priest Prayag Raj and hundreds of Brahmins were on one side while Joshi was their sole opponent. To be an ‘untouchable’ in the Hindu society is to be preemptively declared a criminal because they are condemned by the society without any fault of their own. Of these two last names, how does the ‘untouchable’ identity become the dominant and overpowering? 9. Dr. Gautam comments, ‘That was the nature of the society then. She did her schooling from Vijayapur Higher Secondary School Dharan, Nepal and Dharan Higher Secondary School, Nepal. Of the 332 Brahmin and Kshatriya judges, only 11 are women, a mere 3.31 percent. The skin of the victorious Arya was fair while that of the vanquished was black, red or yellow. Isn’t it our greatest irony that even our communist parties are being crushed under the immense weight of caste? There was an age when murder was necessary, but now, when lovers or spouses commit suicide out of their own volition, it is as if the wind sweeps away the trash, and all worries disappear! It can be found in From India’s Freedom to Nepal’s Democracy: Memoirs of DB Parihar edited by Shankar Tiwari. Throughout Nepali history, the brutality of the caste system has stunted social transformation. “The bad thing was it created a basis for discrimination. Note that it is not always true- there are few exceptions. © Copyright 2020 the Record | All Rights Reserved, Jean Paul Sartre, in the preface to Franz Fanon’s, Watching a body being exhumed brings back childhood recollections of dead cattle being buried at the edges of our field. Therefore, some people have to be hanged when they choose to love across caste lines, some have to be buried when they marry across caste lines, and some have to be put on cold ice for 748 days. The practice of criminalization of Dalits and other minorities in the neighboring country of India is terrifying. How was this caste system – which has created and sustained such a violent and degrading structure for thousands of years – created? I recall an incident – I had gone to the well to fetch water early in the morning. The name is popularly derived from the Sanskrit word Jyotisha (Sanskrit: ज्योतिष, IAST: Jyotiṣa), referring to Vedic Astrology and astronomy; in turn, Jyotisha is derived from Jyotish ("light bringer or reflect light like sun"). The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed as Jāt. It can be found in, From India’s Freedom to Nepal’s Democracy: Memoirs of DB Parihar. were Brahmins appointed by the state. It is considered normal to suffer humiliation in the name of caste. The indigenous people who were defeated in war were enslaved while the victorious Aryas became the slave-owners. Thus, the age of slavery began in India. Watching a body being exhumed brings back childhood recollections of dead cattle being buried at the edges of our field. Joshi caste is one of the many castes subcastes of India. Dr. Gautam says that DK Shahi didn’t have enough English to become the editor of an English language paper, but he was made the editor. Her zodiac sign is Aquarius. Therefore, according to the civil rights lawyer and writer Michelle Alexander, ‘Earlier, the ‘caste system’ existed in the guise of discriminatory Jim Crow laws and slavery, whereas now the same system has been employed to commonly imprison African Americans. When Joshi raised objections against idolatry, the chief royal priest asked permission of the Rana Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher, saying, ‘Please permit us to beat up this man who calls Pashupatinath, worshipped even by the King of Nepal, a mere idol of stone.’. Therefore, it was established that he had committed suicide. Why are the so-called ‘untouchables’ obligated to carry the deep welts and dark bruises of humiliation for thousands of years? Why was Tanka Prasad Acharya, the ‘leader’ of the leaders of a revolution, so distraught at having his caste debased temporarily by the Rana rulers? Ajit’s lifeless body asks vital questions: If the last name had been Dhakal rather than Mijar, would he have been buried like this for being with the woman of his choice? Generally, the Parvate/Pahari (hilly) Brahmins are called as Bahuns or Khas Bahuns.Bahuns mainly served as priests, teachers and astrologers as per their caste. Perhaps it was to keep the hawks and carrion dogs away, but I remember the burial pits being dug much deeper. The family of Ajit Mijar Dhakal – whose death was deemed a suicide – are witnesses to a similarly ugly history. Caste Debasement: The Guillotine of Humiliation. Even the state, the political parties, courts, police administration and the casteist society seems to find such violence forgivable. Rita Bahuguna Joshi . Thus, when a civilized body is treated with hatred as if it is a debased body the distinction between human rights and humiliation becomes stark. Baglung/ Dalit : a quest for dignity]. They’ve killed my son. The Nepalese caste system was the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal. In the course of such struggles the Hindu society practiced violence against the ‘untouchables’. Therefore, sometime in the July of 1905 he was invited to Singha Durbar, purportedly to participate in a debate on the scriptures. I am tired of telling her to not dwell on it. Asking questions comes with a high cost. Therefore, the victorious Aryas started discriminating on the basis of race and skin-color. Similarly, in the United States, African Americans seems to enjoy priority rights over ‘crime’ and incarceration. Living arrangements and quality of life of Nepalese elderly in rural Nepal. 2018; 7(5): 1-6. It is as if they have priority rights over the death penalty. She has seen how living with extreme poverty and harmful, rigid traditions holds women and their children back from reaching their true potential. This sort of writing appears to suggest a continuation of the brahminical history. Of the defendants, 51 percent are Dalits. Is it possible for a Brahmin to become a revolutionary while maintaining all the trappings of brahminical caste? The body, too, somewhat swollen. list of newar caste in nepal November 6, 2020 0 Comments But despite of having small population, Newar people have great impact in Nepali society. Later, the division of labor was fixed as a matter of birth in order to make the practice of violence unnecessary. ‘If your father was a Dhakal, how did you become a Mijar?’, He says, ‘I don’t know what it is – they say it is an old tradition. The skin of the victorious Arya was fair while that of the vanquished was black, red or yellow. Get the famous, popular, surname of Nepal. In 2001 the CBS recorded only nine groups in the caste-origin Hill Hindu groups. Naturally, when restrictions were placed upon the choice of occupations, the so-called ‘untouchables’ rebelled. Parihar, feeling the sting of humiliations for being denied the recognition of his capabilities because he was a Dalit, says, ‘The faith that Congress leaders show towards socialism is false.’ What sort of a socialism did the Congress imagine where the caste system is the main obstacle before the workers and where the system smothers and kills capability and talent and throws into the gutter the very sentiment of group identity? The Joshi are a Brahmin group who lives in many states of Indian. Every stage of every revolution has been taken hostage by caste. In that sense, the ‘suicide’ of Ajit Mijar, the attempted suicide of Buddhamaya Bishwokarma, the rape and murder of Maya BK and the slaughter of Mana Sarki are no longer murder, since they have the approval of the scriptures and the state.      The writer Aahuti says, ‘The Nepali society is a society hostile to thought. The rebel’s weapon is the proof of his humanity.’  Jean Paul Sartre, in the preface to Franz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth. Those who would shy away on the road in yesteryears now approach to shake hands. In many cases people get confused in Caste and Gotra. In Nepal, the surname Joshi is used by Newar Srēṣṭhas. Much of the previously animist/tribal Khas population of the western Nepal region acquired the 'Chhetri' status in the 1850s with the proclamation by the Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, making Chhetris the most populous caste/tribe of Nepal. Consequently, the. "National Volunteer Organisation"), is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation. Nepal history and culture expert Satya Mohan Joshi said there were positive and negative aspects of this system back then. Today, it is most commonly associated with the Indian caste system and the Varna in Hinduism. According to their beliefs and notions, if an act of violence is committed in accordance with the scriptures, it isn’t violence – Vaidiki himsa himsa na bhavati, which is to say that caste-based violence is no violence at all. My curiosity about caste debasement was helped by the incident faced by the ‘pro-democracy leader’ Tanks Prasad Acharya. And July 14, 2016 became a dark day in the history of love. The ruling class of that time imposed division of labor as an insurmountable structure by forcing a particular nature of labor upon a particular lineage. How can we not feel ashamed that the oppressive burden of caste has still not crumbled in our days, with our generation, informed by the caste experiences of Tanka Prasad and Ahuti, having seen the struggles for democracy and the long decade of a People’s War? But I have barely any recollection of having eaten at the homes of our neighbors. It seems there is no sense of culpability or guilt in the so called ‘upper’ castes regarding their acts of violence or humiliation. 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The scholar Gopal Guru, who has theorized the notion of humiliation, says, ‘Humiliation is not so much a physical or corporeal injury; in fact, it is more of a mental/psychological injury that leaves a permanent scar on the heart.’ His argument is that when a person is wounded morally and mentally and they are debased culturally they become inculcated with the sense that they are naturally of a lower and lesser order. I see a torrent of corpses falling before my naked eyes. BJP veterans say Kalraj Mishra was known as the ‘Brahmin leader’ at a time when UP was home turf for two BJP stalwarts -- Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Murli Manohar Joshi of the same caste. The name Joshi means astrologer or light bringing in Sanskrit. I am constantly startled by questions about how this structure have instituted a regime of violence and humiliation in my life and the lives of people like me. I don’t remember if she shared food or shelter with the villagers. The most Joshi families were found in the USA in 1920. Madhav Raj was the father of Shukra Raj Shashtri. Consequently, the dharmadhikaris were Brahmins appointed by the state. A system was created wherein some were born criminals while some others were born with the privilege of becoming dharmadhikaris – passers of verdicts and dispensers of justice. In the beginning, the word varna denoted color, whereas now it denotes race.’. 2019; 32(2): 178-192. And already a declared ‘criminal’. What is the relationship between violence and brahminical patriarchy? For other uses, see. Caste is as bewildering as it is easy to understand. The Progress Scale is derived from people group values for percent Evangelical and percent Christian Adherent. The series depicted the lives and struggle of ordinary Dalits in Nepal. Malina Joshi was born on Friday, 27 January 1989 (age 31 years; as in 2020), in Dharan, Nepal. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. A Reservoir of Violence: Brahminical Patriarchy. For the common Nepali the caste system is something instituted by the gods, and defiance of this tradition bars their passage into the heavens in the afterlife. Dharma Ratna Yami, a colleague of Acharya, says that Acharya was so distraught at having his caste debased by the Ranas that he petitioned the Rana ruler, offering the ceremonial coin, to return him to the status of a ‘touchable’ person. ANI | … It feels as if the war drum of death is beating its booming march in my body. Currently, she is pursuing legal studies at the Nepal Law School in Kathmandu. Sorrysa Joshi is a Nepali young girl who made comedy videos on Tik Tok with her mother and friends. It identifies people from a particular group, and it is a broader term which represents them—for example- Shrestha, Basnet, Luitel, Soni and so on. I was, in utero, already an ‘untouchable’. Dalit women who were obsequious in the past have now reaches positions from where they write legislation, can look people in the eye and hold conversations. I was bewildered even more about caste debasement when I learned about how Tanka Prasad Acharya had become the president of the Praja Parishad. Examine the history of individuals and institutions and you will find the pitiable cries of those crushed under the weight of caste. When Brahmin men and women entered intimate relationships with persons from ‘lower’ castes, they lost their caste standing and were forced into exile. But, in The Caste System and Class Struggle in Nepal Ahuti says, ‘Five thousand years ago, fair-skinned Aryas from Europe entered what is today Iran. There is nothing to be gained now, no matter how hard we fight – we are alone, and they are many. Which means that they will not refrain from any form of discrimination, humiliation or violence if it returns to them the dignity of their caste. Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS (IAST: Rāṣṭrīya Svayamsevaka Saṅgha, IPA: [raːʂˈʈriːj(ə) swəjəmˈseːʋək səŋɡʱ], lit. Perhaps it is because the caste system is the most complex and layered organization. The Joshua Project Progress Scale is an estimate of the progress of church planting among a people group, people cluster, country or language. The extent of violence and humiliation inherent in the patriarchy that maintains castes like Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas and keeps caste central to itself is experienced in the Nepali society every day. The questions he had raised for the reform of Hinduism were anathema to the people in power. Nepal Praja Parishad had been created under Acharya’s leadership to end the Rana rule and to establish democracy in Nepal, and it was the very first political organization in Nepal. Caste is firmly transfixed through Nepali society and politics, like an iron stake. Later, the division of labor was fixed as a matter of birth in order to make the practice of violence unnecessary. Naturally, when restrictions were placed upon the choice of occupations, the so-called ‘untouchables’ rebelled. How can the fate of being cut down or not, or of being hanged or not, or of being declared a criminal or not be determined by whether one or the other of these caste names follows one’s given name? But Ajit Mijar’s corpse hadn’t been buried even as deep as the carcass of an animal. His mother constantly dwells on the incident. Thus, the age of slavery began in India. Thus, the caste system is responsible for keeping the Hindu society operational through the imposition of insurmountable structures along caste divisions. Even today when ‘grand citizens’ are asked about the caste system, the answer is this: Dalits carry within themselves a sense of inferiority. Ajit Mijar’s cold corpse awaits – on a slab of ice at the Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital – the justice denied to him. First introduced in the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. If the members of the society and other political prisoners hadn’t behaved as if Acharya’s caste had been debased, perhaps Acharya wouldn’t have bowed before the Ranas.’ This comment perhaps means that a revolutionary should have the opportunity to regain his caste, even if that requires him to submit to his oppressor. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joshi&oldid=989317967, Pages using infobox name with unknown parameters, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 08:42. THE CONDITION OF DALIT WOMEN IN NEPAL: Health Condition: Lowest Life Expectancy • A very backward Dalit caste-the Mushar of Terai -has a life span of 42 years against the national average of 55 years. The Joshi family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1851 and 1920. In the course of the protests started by the Praja Parishad, in 1940 Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Ganga Lal Shrestha, Shukra Raj Shashtri (a Newar Joshi) and Dasharath Chand were hanged and shot to death but Tanka Prasad Acharya was merely imprisoned and had his caste debased. Dr Joshi -- who has been studying Nepalese meat-marketing practices since 1989 and the presence of echinococcisis and hydatidosis in Kathmandu since 1991 -- reports that the ongoing work to understand the conditions in Wards 19 and 20 has prompted Nepal's government to formulate and approve a new Animal Slaughtering and Meat Inspection Act. But Ajit Mijar’s corpse hadn’t been buried even as deep as the carcass of an animal. In that sense, the ‘suicide’ of Ajit Mijar, the attempted suicide of Buddhamaya Bishwokarma, the rape and murder of Maya BK and the slaughter of Mana Sarki are no longer murder, since they have the approval of the scriptures and the state. Joshi appears as a surname most commonly in the Brahmin caste of Hindus in India and … Is it not violence to humiliate a person with the loss of caste? This was about 17% of all the recorded Joshi's in the USA. Joshi is a common family name in Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Goa and Uttar Pradeshin India a… J Gerontol Geriatr Res. He established the Nepal chapter of Arya Samaj in 1896. For a long time I didn’t have a comprehension of why they moved their pots away. He said it was due to Joshi’s efforts that injustice done by excluding Brahmins and Kshatriyas from the OBC list was rectified. Parihar, feeling the sting of humiliations for being denied the recognition of his capabilities because he was a Dalit, says, ‘The faith that Congress leaders show towards socialism is false.’ What sort of a socialism did the Congress imagine where the caste system is the main obstacle before the workers and where the system smothers and kills capability and talent and throws into the gutter the very sentiment of group identity? His body had been hidden under a scattering of soil and stone, no more than a bit of mulch and few broken branches of syaula leaves. I begin to wonder – was the hammer used often by my brother in reality the history striking at the dignity of the ‘untouchables’? Perhaps it was to keep the hawks and carrion dogs away, but I remember the burial pits being dug much deeper. Whether it had been a case of inter-caste love or a marriage, whether it had been a murder or a suicide, how could a verdict rendered by ‘pure’ voices be sullied or impure? Even on the visage of the judiciary established to deliver justice the ugly face of the Nepali society is reflected. Editor’s note: The photos and captions in the article are from Dalit: a quest for dignity, a photo-history book edited by Diwas Raja KC and published by Nepal Picture Library. Dalit body is the prison for the Dalit human and his corporeal being precedes him and is itself considered as evidence of its lowness.’ She calls this an ontological wound. Will raising questions such as this force all revolutionary politicians to face the question of caste? What sort of a democracy was implemented where some groups were immune to questions while questions from other groups were prohibited? If the ‘superiority, purity and holiness’ of their castes and creed are being defended, then murder, suicide or the gradual death and all other kinds of violence seem to become acceptable! They are the indigenous people of the Kathmandu valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic civilization. Although the nature of this humiliation is social in appearance, the history of its political form is terrifying. , which is to say that caste-based violence is no violence at all. A study of modern history shows that the tradition of appointing justices and judges according to their birth and caste hasn’t changed much at all. She says that caste hierarchy and gender hierarchy are the organizing principles of brahminical social system and they are interrelated. Then this advice is given free of cost – ‘Dalits must rise above such thinking.’ Dalits, who have been continuously made to stand before the guillotine of humiliation, continue to protest against this accusation in their own ways. When opportunity is given to children or members of a powerful political family, it is generally referred to as political dynasty. To study the historical evidence of the caste debasement of non-Dalits is to see with utmost clarity why it is not at all normal to have to endure humiliation under the guise of ‘untouchability’. Ignorance, absolute poverty, caste and gender discrimination can be considered as the explanation for such statistics. Caste system in Nepal The Nepalese castesystemthe traditional system of social stratification of Nepal. In light of this incident, it appears as if the humiliation of caste debasement is a worse fate than that of a death sentence in the ‘beautiful, peaceful and vast Nepal’. I experienced caste-based untouchability even before I understood the caste system. Father used to say, ‘After she was humiliated while trying to fetch water from the well, your mother always went to the River Rapti to fetch water, even if it were at midnight.’ I don’t remember what mother did for borrowing or lending goods with the neighbors. 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Injuries on Diwali night a continuation of the society then brahminical patriarchy has a role in it made videos... Negligible representation of Dalits in Nepal bharatiya Janata Party MP Rita Bahuguna ’. Is most commonly associated with the scriptures, it isn’t violence – how hard we –!, already an ‘untouchable’ who are engaged in the judicial system brahminical social system and they pushed! Been working with the marginalized communities of Nepal suggest a continuation of the Licchavis the!